Entries Tagged 'Teaching Writing' ↓

Kids can learn by teaching others!

Make writing lessons more effective by asking your kids to "teach" others what they're learning!

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I’ve been writing and blogging for a while now. Yet no matter how many times I’ve read the rules for using hyphens between adjectives, I never got the hang of it. Until last Thursday, that is. That was the day I explained hyphens to someone else.

“No matter what you’re studying, when you turn around and teach someone else, and the sooner the better, you deepen your understanding of the subject.” –Deb Peterson, learning and training consultant

Homeschooling moms are often just one step ahead of the kids as we learn new facts and concepts to teach them. Yet don’t you find that when you prepare a lesson and explain it them, the information becomes implanted in your own mind in deeper, more lasting ways?

Just think how much your kids could benefit from similar opportunities to teach someone else what they’ve been learning!

Older Students: Teach Younger Children

When homeschooling multiple ages, it often makes sense to ask your high schooler to tutor a younger sibling in one or two areas. If 16-year-old Greg is a math whiz, why wouldn’t you want him helping 8-year-old Krista? This teaching time can build brother-sister relationships if you as the parent are careful to foster a spirit of mutual kindness and respect.

But what if that math whiz still struggles with writing and grammar concepts (hyphens, for instance)? You can still ask him to teach a grammar concept to his little sister. It will probably benefit him more than it will Krista—but that’s okay! It’s a great way to cement a concept in his mind as he introduces something new to his younger sibling. While you might not assign this “teaching time” every day, you may find huge benefits in scheduling it once or twice a week.

Example:

Mom: Krista, as part of your grammar lesson, Greg’s going to explain something new about punctuation. I need you to be a good listener, okay?

Krista: Okay.

Greg: I’m learning how to use this little punctuation line called a hyphen. You use it between two adjectives sometimes. Adjectives are words that describe things.

Krista: I know about adjectives!

Greg: Good. Just making sure. So, sometimes you have a sentence with two adjectives in front of a noun, like this: “I wore a warm winter coat.” Do you think we need a hyphen between “warm” and “winter”?

Krista: I don’t know.

Greg: No, because nothing changes when those adjectives work alone. You can either say “warm coat” or “winter coat.”  They’re both right. But, if I changed it to “I wore a button-down shirt,” then you would need a hyphen. That’s because those words can’t work alone to describe my shirt. You wouldn’t say “button shirt” or “down shirt.” That doesn’t even make sense!

Krista: I still don’t get it.

Greg: Okay … the hyphen’s job is to make two words work together as one adjective. Pretend you have a blue striped dress. What are your two adjectives?

Krista: Blue and striped.

Greg: Right! Now, if you want to explain that the stripes—not the dress—are blue, you would use a hyphen and write “blue-striped dress.” The hyphen makes the “blue” and “striped” work together. They become one adjective that describes your dress.

Krista: Hyphens are confusing!

Greg: That’s okay. It just takes practice. How about if we practice with a few more examples? I’ll write down some phrases. I want you to read each phrase, but leave out one of the first two words. If the meaning of the whole phrase changes, we’ll know we need to add a hyphen. Try this one.

Krista: Chocolate covered marshmallow … chocolate marshmallow … wait! The marshmallow isn’t chocolate. It’s white!

Greg: Right! And “covered marshmallow” doesn’t make sense either! That means it needs a hyphen: chocolate-covered marshmallow.

Which of these examples need hyphens?

1. peanut butter cookies   2. three hour flight   3. windy autumn day   4. yellow cotton socks   5. funny looking clown   6. sunny Saturday morning   7. brown haired girl   8. forest green paint

(Answers: 1–yes; 2–yes; 3–no; 4–no; 5–yes; 6–no; 7–yes; 8–yes)

Younger Children: Meet Your Editing Buddy!

WriteShop Primary Book B introduces the idea of using “editing buddies” to encourage young children in the writing and editing process. Choose a small doll, stuffed animal, or action figure that only makes an appearance when it’s time for your first, second, or third-grade child to edit a writing project. Any kid can step into the role of teacher when an editing buddy is there to listen!

Girls are often all too happy to “play school” with their dolls. With a child-sized chalkboard, your daughter will spend hours teaching Saige or Princess Anna how to write reports, poems, or friendly letters. She can also sit side-by-side with her doll as they “work together” to edit a story.

Your boys, however, might resist the idea of playing teacher. You’ll have to think outside the box to make “teaching time” fun! Perhaps your son loves playing army. Ask him to wear camouflage when it’s time for a writing assignment, and surprise him with a G.I. Joe action figure standing at attention on the school table or writing center. Explain that G.I. Joe has been slacking with his writing lately, and the country needs your son to hammer this soldier into shape!

Example:

Mom: Can you tell G.I. Joe why I underlined these three words in your writing assignment?

Child (in a tough, military voice): Because those words are BORING!

Mom: What should G.I. Joe do about that?

Child (yelling like a drill commander): Change them to words that aren’t BORING!

Mom: I’ll let you work on that for a few minutes while I’m on KP duty.

Child: Yes, Ma’am!

Have you ever used editing buddies in your writing lessons? Have you asked your kids to learn by teaching? Share your experience in the comments below!

Daniella DautrichDaniella Dautrich is a WriteShop alumna and a graduate of Hillsdale College. She and her husband fill their home with books on writing, literature, and computer science. Daniella also blogs at www.waterlilywriter.com.

Photo: Carissa Rogers, courtesy of Creative Commons

6 writing strategies for wordy kids

Writing strategies to help highly verbal children create more concise, manageable stories

I often write about reluctant writers and their struggles to produce just a few sentences.

But what do you do with an enthusiastic, highly verbal student who (when left unchecked) scrawls out a 19-page tome? How can you encourage this eager child—and her boatload of ideas—while helping her write a more manageable story?

Today we’ll take a look at some strategies for reining in wordy writers.

The Problem with Long Stories

Teaching children to self-edit is an important goal. Most kids already have a hard time finding their own errors, but it can be completely overwhelming when they’re faced with a stack of 19 pages to edit, polish, and revise.

Not only that, long stories are often filled with tangents that wander away from the main action, so it’s wise to teach kids to narrow their focus and write concisely.

Until your child has developed the skills to plan, organize, and write cohesively, you’ll want to guide her to write stories of a more manageable length. At first, encourage her to stick to a fixed number of paragraphs. If she wants to embellish and expand (or even write a novel), she can do that in her free time.

In most cases, stories that are super long have these common characteristics: 

  • Overly broad topic
  • Many characters
  • A number of different settings
  • Many plots, subplots, and rabbit trails
  • Long, wordy sentences or run-ons

Writing Strategies for Wordy Kids

Rather than try whittling down a long story into a shorter one, it’s usually much cleaner to start over. Challenge your child to keep her new story to five paragraphs or two typed pages by following a few simple guidelines.

1. Narrow the topic.

Instead of tackling a vast subject like the Ohio flood of 1913, it often helps to take a mental snapshot—zeroing in on one moment in the midst of a bigger experience.

2. Use fewer characters.

Perhaps she could write about one main character who must save his sister as the flood waters rise. Or, she could focus on a member of the Akron fire department who helps one family get to safety.

3. Stick with one setting.

Many changes in scene and setting add to a story’s length. Though a verbal child might want to have multiple scenes in her story, suggest that she settle on one or two. 

4. Limit the passage of time.

Writing about an event that spans days or weeks pretty much guarantees that the story will be long and involved. But if she sticks to a time frame of several hours, she’ll more easily manage the story details. 

5. Choose details wisely.

Details are important! They add color and interest, and they engage the reader. By all means, encourage her to describe characters, emotions, settings, and events. At the same time, caution her that trying to fit in all of her great ideas can bog down the writing or steer her off course. 

6. Be precise and concise.

Enthusiastic writers enjoy words, don’t they? But often, their stories are tangled with awkward sentences and long strings of adjectives.

Without discouraging your student from developing a more mature writing style, explain that long sentences and big words don’t always produce good writing. Guide her to use simple language and choose more precise words.

A helpful strategy is to first invite her to write a skeleton of each sentence that includes a subject and predicate. Once she has the basic story structure in place, she can carefully choose modifiers, sentence variations, figurative language, or other details to expand each sentence and make it more colorful.

Even if their prose is a bit over the top, we’re thrilled when one of our children finds joy in writing. In what ways do you guide your wordy young author to write more concisely?

Image courtesy of bugphai / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Speech-writing tips for high school students

Teach rhetoric and composition with these speech-writing tips for prewriting, writing, and editing.

SPEECH writing offers a rare chance for students to impact an audience in lasting, meaningful ways. Through this kind of written and oral communication, they can learn to convey truth in a world with where morals are blurred and virtues are disappearing. Thus, speech writers combine narrative, descriptive, explanatory, and persuasive skills, arranging a composition to make both logical and emotional appeals. After all, rhetoric (the art of persuasion) should engage the whole person, not just the mind or heart.

Even if your son will never enroll in a speech and debate club, encourage him to present an original speech in a group setting such as a class, family gathering, or graduation party. These speech-writing tips for students should help him get started!

The Prewriting Stage

When you write a speech, the prewriting stage represents about a third of the entire process.

  • Choose a topic you feel strongly about. If you don’t care about the subject matter, neither will your audience.
  • Evaluate your potential audience. Will you speak to a mixed group of teenagers or to a room of retirees? What are their values and interests? What kinds of music and cultural references will they relate to?
  • Understand your purpose. Are you writing a speech to entertain, inform, or persuade? If you intend to persuade, are you trying to reach a like-minded or neutral audience or an openly hostile group?
  • Research and brainstorm. Start gathering your facts and examples, and make a list of possible talking points.

The Writing Stage

Writing the first draft should consume about 20% of your time as a speech writer.

  • Develop a “hook.” You need to capture the audience’s attention at the beginning of the speech and motivate them to keep listening. A humorous story or a startling statistic may serve this purpose, depending on the type of speech you’re writing.
  • Construct a thesis. Your speech should present a clear message, with each sub-point logically leading to the final conclusion.
  • Build a relationship with the audience. Establish your credibility as a speaker by demonstrating your connection to the topic. Did a hobby, a favorite author, or a family experience lead you to choose this subject?
  • Organize your ideas. Offer a preview of what’s to come in the introduction, and be sure you follow those points in order.
  • Finish with a strong conclusion. When you reach the end of your speech, restate your thesis and tie everything back to your introduction.

The Editing Stage

The editing stage requires another third of your time as a speech writer. As you revise, check for these items:

  • Grammar. Poor writing could cause an audience to stop taking you seriously, even if your main message is solid.
  • Style. In the writing stage, you focused on substance (what to say); now you can focus on style (how to say it). Without resorting to overdone “purple prose,” you can practice writing techniques such as parallelism, repetition, alliteration, and series or lists.
  • Time. Read your speech out loud. It shouldn’t take longer than 20 minutes.
  • Sound. When you read the speech aloud, do you stumble over unnatural words and phrases? Perhaps you need to rewrite with more direct, simple language. Is your flow of thoughts easy to understand? Is your vocabulary appropriate to the audience’s age and education?
  • Appeal to the senses. Your speech should engage the imagination—not put people to sleep! Do you use figurative language to help the audience visualize concepts? Include a descriptive passage to help them hear, feel, and touch your topic. Try to include narratives that people will identify with. You don’t need too many details… just enough to make the stories ring true and help you explain your persuasive points or morals.
  • Organization. You can arrange your speech chronologically, topically, by comparison/contrast, or in some other way. Just be sure you’re consistent.
  • Politeness. Have you used appropriate language throughout? Have you written with respect for yourself and others? The best speeches display compassion and empathy, rather than tear others down.

The Pre-Performance Stage

Once you’ve written and revised your speech, it’s time to practice! Try to memorize it, and watch your speed so you don’t speak too quickly. Practice in front of a mirror so you remember to move naturally, incorporating hand/arm gestures and facial expressions. Experiment with volume, high and low pitch, and pauses (take notes about what works and what doesn’t.)

Finally, have confidence! Stage fright is part of life, but the greatest performers have learned that passion and honesty set the speaker—and the audience—at ease every time.

Daniella Dautrich studied classical rhetoric at a liberal arts college in Hillsdale, Michigan.

Photo: Liz West, courtesy of Creative Commons

Writing fictional stories: The creative process

Teens and adults will enjoy the three building blocks of the creative process to help with writing fictional stories.

This post contains affiliate links. Read our full disclosure policy.

PERHAPS you’ve always wanted to write a fictional story based on an old family photograph, but never knew quite where to begin. Or maybe you have a child who bubbles over with stories, and you want to gently offer guidance for the story-writing process. Whether you are young or old, writing fictional stories can be a wonderfully stretching, self-expressive, and even healing process.

The art of creating fiction is a fluid process. Ideas lead to outlines; outlines lead to new ideas. Writing a first draft may reveal new possibilities for characters and settings, so you decide to outline again, and more ideas emerge.

Whatever your plan of action, don’t be afraid to write. Write honestly and courageously, and write as often as you can. As your story unfolds, keep these three building blocks of the creative process always in mind.

Unlikely Combinations: The Brainstorming Process

Original stories spring from curious minds. What if my childhood toaster came to life? What if a mail-order bride was secretly a spy? The possibilities are endless when you open your mind and heart to unlikely combinations. A deaf composer, a blind ice skater, a baseball pitcher without a right hand—these are the things great stories are made of. The characters inside your head will become just as riveting when you imagine their lives and dreams and personal challenges in a way that no one else ever could.

Before Suzanne Collins became famous for her dystopian trilogy The Hunger Games, she was simply a writer who asked questions. What if “reality TV” entertainment came at a truly violent price? What if ancient Greek myths and Roman gladiatorial games were ultimately reborn in North America’s future? The author’s imagination combined ideas and images until she had created something wholly memorable and new. This is the fiction writer’s brainstorming process.

Broad and Fine Brush Strokes: The Outlining Process

Sometimes, you’ll begin a story with a single vivid picture: an empty road at dusk, a half-submerged bridge, an ancestral castle. At other times, your mind’s eye will zoom in on the particulars: a red hair ribbon, a pile of shells, or a snippet of conversation. Like the broad sweeps of color and the fine details of a painting, both are important, and both equally valid starting points for a story. Now you need an outline, a place to organize your content and fill in the gaps.

We find a profound example of creative organization in the Genesis creation account. All is formless and empty in the beginning. Then the Author turns on the light, so to speak, and the work of outlining begins. He creates three major settings (aren’t there three acts in your story?): the sky, the water, and finally dry land. The broad brush strokes are complete.

A setting would be dreadfully dull without the props to build a scene. So the Creator/Author drapes the bare land with plants: twisting vines, shy flowers, and showy trees. He fills the sky with sparrow songs and eagle calls, and generously sprinkles the water with fins and scales and sticky tentacles. Don’t forget the land-dwelling creatures—hairy and slimy and everything in between! The scene is set with sounds and colors; there are pets to cuddle and foods to eat.

A scene is lifeless without characters to speak and hide and stumble and grow. Finally, the Author introduces a man and a woman. A romance is born, and a family line commences for better or worse. An epic story can come to life, for the work of outlining is now complete.

Careful Selection: The Storytelling Process

After so much brainstorming and outlining, it’s tempting to clutter our stories with too many people, unnecessary facts, and boring details. We must make careful, conscious selections. You would never serve 45 different dishes to your children for lunch. Your daughter would never expect you to paint her bedroom in 36 shades of pink, blue, and orange. Likewise, a good story doesn’t need every moral lesson (or every gruesome detail) from the author’s imagination.

Some parts of the story will ultimately remain in the writer’s head, so her readers can enjoy only the best parts.

This is why I love the portrayal of Walt Disney in the recent movie Saving Mr. Banks. Using every power of persuasion, Walt finally convinces Pamela Travers to let him make Mary Poppins (and the turbulent childhood memories it evokes) into a timeless, magical movie: “Because that’s what we storytellers do. We restore order with imagination. We instill hope again and again and again.”

Whether you’re writing for yourself, an audience of three, or the thousands in your circle of acquaintances, take the time and imagination to polish your story. Life is messy and cluttered, but good stories remind us of a world where order and hope and redemption are always possible.

WriteShop Blog--In Our Write Minds

Daniella Dautrich is a WriteShop alumna and a graduate of Hillsdale College. She and her husband fill their home with books on writing, literature, and computer science. Daniella also blogs at www.waterlilywriter.com.

Photos: Jim Lukach (shell), Brian Snelson (castle), Cushing Memorial Library (three ball players), Barney Moss (shell grotto), HA! Designs (bride), and Boston Public Library (1907 World Series), courtesy of Creative Commons

 

You Can’t Teach Writing: Screwtape Letter for the Homeschool Mom

Why read the latest "Screwtape Letter for the Homeschool Mom"? Because we have an enemy who likes to remind us of our fears and failures.

By Daniella Dautrich

PERHAPS you’ve heard whispers of lies such as this one: “You can’t teach writing.” Doubts about your schedule, curriculum, ability to grade, or your own writing background might tempt you to believe these problems are the measure of your homeschooling abilities. This loss of perspective can quickly take a homeschool mom captive.

The Screwtape Letters by C.S. Lewis If “the truth will set you free” (John 8:32), remember that your adversary will stop at nothing to blind you from the truth. In his classic The Screwtape Letters, C.S. Lewis imaginatively portrays this epic battle.

I hope you find encouragement in this Screwtape Letter for today’s homeschool mom, adapted from the fifth, sixth, and seventh letters in Lewis’s book.

My dear Wormwood, 

Your last letter gives me much cause for disappointment, except where you mention the patient’s frustrations with teaching writing. This brings to mind all sorts of possibilities. In this unbalanced era of homeschooling, intense feelings about curriculum and extreme self-consciousness (or self-righteousness!) about writing abilities have often produced desirable results.

If She Lacks the Time…

If your patient is the type who loves writing, but has “no time to teach writing,” you will find your task quite amusing. Build the most unrealistic expectations in her head about the perfect writing lesson. Let her believe that her child’s peers in conventional schools spend hours each day on brilliant essay compositions. Prey on her dreams of perfectionism, and you will paralyze her greatest talents.

Let her believe that she will never have enough time, so she dare not even try. Do not let it occur to her that vocabulary skills can be taught in the kitchen while she fixes dinner, or that sentence building can become a game in the family car. Keep her in this state of ignorance, and you may enjoy the hilarious spectacle of a mother who loves writing, yet whose children hate words!

If She Lacks the Patience…

If you are going to tell me that your patient won’t teach writing because she “lacks the patience,” I know very well what state of mind you’re in. You take credit for an emotional crisis in the middle of a school day, do you? You have tasted the intoxicating anguish and bewilderment of a human soul. But remember, Wormwood, that duty comes before pleasure.

Do not allow your temporary excitement to distract you from the real business of undermining her faith. This tired mother has doubtless heard the Enemy’s adage that “patience is a virtue.” By no means let this saying—or any other Proverb or Beatitude—enter her mind.

You must guard against the attitude which treats homeschooling as a means for obedience to the Enemy. Never let your patient suspect that unpleasant writing lessons with her reluctant little ones might actually please Him. You want her to feel like a lamb at the slaughter—never like a willing servant offering up her time and talents.

If She Can’t Write…

If, on the other hand, your patient suffers from an actual oversight in her own early education and believes that she “cannot write,” your strategy will somewhat differ.

We want her to remain in the maximum uncertainty and confusion about how to teach writing and how to grade it. Fear and self-deprecation must immobilize her. Let her belittle herself.

Let her thoughts overflow with contradictory pictures of online tutorials and workbook exercises, long handwritten essays and oral narrations, letter grades and point systems. Lead her to think she should do it all, and that each one must find room in her daily homeschooling routine.

Most importantly, watch for any signs that your patient is willing to bear her daily cross. It doesn’t matter if this burden is relearning grammar late at night, or preparing from a teacher’s manual early each morning. If she overcomes her distaste or insecurity about these things for the sake of her child, we will lose valuable ground.

That is why you must always encourage a shadowy, overwhelming terror of something they call “teaching writing.” This vague notion will make her lose sight of any small, achievable goals in her own education or that of her children.

If She Prefers Math and Science…

In the final case, your patient may simply excel in math and science. By her Enemy-bestowed nature, she craves that which is measurable and quantifiable. She hesitates about writing because she perceives the subject is too fluid to teach and too subjective to grade. Prey upon this! Remind her often that teaching and evaluating writing rely too much upon guesswork

She may say she “hates writing,” but the results of such a melodramatic hatred are often most disappointing. Redirect the abstract malice in her soul toward proficient writers in her own social circle. The Enemy desires your patient to appreciate the talents of other homeschool moms. Whenever possible, He wants her to offer her talents in return. In this way the humans participate in a disgusting allegory of “the Body.” I have often witnessed this irritating arrangement in homeschool co-ops.

You may even lead the patient to believe that math and science are the only really important subjects—that writing nowadays has no worth at allThis will lead to a great deal of pride. Your patient will feel not only superior, but fashionably modern. 

Finally, whatever your patient’s particular strengths and struggles may be, you must not forget our ultimate goal. We want these dear little homeschooling mothers to downplay or ignore the written word, until they finally learn to reject the incarnate Word Himself.

Your affectionate uncle,

SCREWTAPE

Read the original Screwtape Letter for the Homeschool Mom.

::

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Photo: Elne (Neighya), courtesy of Creative Commons.

A short {brief, concise} history of synonyms

Did you know American English began as a hybrid of old British dialects? Teach your kids this fascinating history of synonyms!

If you’ve taught writing for awhile, this scene might sound familiar:

Mom: Let’s replace some of those repeated words with interesting synonyms.

Child (grumbling): Why do we have so many words that mean the same thing, anyway?

Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America (David Hackett Fischer)Perhaps you’ve wondered about this yourself. If so, make yourself a mug of hot tea or coffee, dust off your copy of The Synonym Finder {the links in this post are my affiliate links because I’m convinced you will love these books}, and let’s have some fun exploring the history of English synonyms!

Although few of us can claim British ancestry, Americans share a cultural inheritance from the speech folkways of Great Britain. United States dialects find their origins in four separate waves of English immigrants, described in David Hacket Fischer’s marvelous cultural history, Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America. Fischer has much to tell about English speech patterns, including some of the synonyms that emerged in colonial America.

English Puritans (1629-1641)

From the eastern counties of England, middle class Puritan families began a great migration to the New World in the early seventeenth century. Most of these families came from urban areas, and they settled the towns that became New England, New Jersey and New York.

The Puritan ministers and magistrates, trained in Latin at Cambridge University, brought a plethora of multi-syllable words to their New England pulpits. The country members of their congregations naturally adopted some of these formal words. New Englanders also invented words of their own with fancy-sounding Latinate endings, such as:

  • -ize, -ous
  • -ulate, -ticate
  • -ical, -iction
  • -acious, -iferous

When words like rambunctious and splendiferous began appearing for the first time, Boston especially became known for a “florid, pompous” style of speech.

Distressed Cavaliers & Indentured Servants (1642-1675)

The colony of Virginia was a welcome haven for the Royalist and Anglican elite. From the south and west of England they came, bringing the language and manners of London nobility. Quickly, the Virginia colony emerged as a hierarchical society, where upper-class families took pride in rank and reputation.

Most Virginia immigrants were young men who earned a living as poor tenant farmers (75% crossed the Atlantic as indentured servants). If they shared one thing in common with their masters, it was their set of regional speech patterns. For instance, a Virginian might use like instead of “as if” (“he looks like he’s sick”)—a sentence construction not found in New England. Virginians also had a distinct vocabulary:

  • Chomp for chew
  • Flapjack for pancake
  • Howdy for hello
  • Laid off for out of work
  • Skillet  for frying pan
  • Tarry for stay
  • Yonder for distant

These had become archaic words in Britain by late 1700s, but they survived and flourished in the American South.

The Society of Friends (1675-1725)

When William Penn recruited Quakers to settle in the Delaware Valley, thousands would settle in West Jersey, Pennsylvania, and North Delaware. Some of these Quakers came from Holland and Germany, but it was the Irish, Welsh and English Friends who shaped the culture of the middle colonies.

English Quakers largely hailed from the North Midlands of England, a land originally colonized by Viking invaders. Norse-speaking shepherds and farmers were the ancestors of lower middle class Quakers, humble people who valued simplicity and hard work. They spoke in plain and forceful language, with little use for Latin and French.

The dialect of the North Midlands favored thee and thou in place of “you.” Horses whinnied instead of neighed, and farmers commonly exclaimed by golly, by gum, or good grief! Other distinctively northern terms that immigrated to the middle colonies include:

  • Bamboozle for deceive
  • Budge for move
  • Cuddle for caress
  • Dad for father
  • Flabbergasted for extremely surprised
  • Frightened for scared
  • Grub for food
  • Mad for angry
  • Nap for a short sleep
  • Sick for ill
  • Spuds for potatoes
  • Swatch for a fabric sample
  • Wed for married

The Borderland Immigration (1717-1775)

In the early eighteenth century, the first waves of a mass migration swept through the American colonies. Desperately poor and stubbornly proud, these men and women came from the North of Ireland, Scottish lowlands, and northernmost English counties. These borderlands, too accustomed to the wars and violence of competing monarchs, had harbored fighting men with fierce clan loyalties for centuries.

Unlike the other English immigrant groups, the border immigrants came to America in search of material prospects rather than religious freedom. In time, they came to settle in the American backcountry, an untamed wilderness from the Appalachian and Ozark Mountains to the lower Mississippi Valley. There, they introduced the southern highland speech, filled with critters and young-uns and hants (ghosts). The border immigrants brought distinctive vocabulary words from North Britain to America, including:

  • Brickle for brittle
  • Cute for attractive
  • Nigh for near
  • Scoot for slide
  • Honey as a term of endearment

As Albion’s Seed carefully explains, American English began as a wonderful hybrid of old British dialects. New words from the Indians, the Spaniards, and others added to our language over time, until the language emerged as we know it today. Encourage your children to enjoy this cultural heritage as they search for just the right words in their writing.

Happy synonym hunting!

WriteShop Blog--In Our Write MindsDaniella Dautrich is a WriteShop alumna and a graduate of Hillsdale College. She and her husband fill their home with books on writing, literature, and computer science. Daniella blogs at www.waterlilywriter.com.

Photo:  Les Haines, courtesy of Creative Commons.

Giving kids clear writing expectations

clear writing expectations, teaching writing, WriteShop

IF you have kids, you step into the role of teacher every moment of every day. Your toddlers and teens alike look to you for guidance and approval as they navigate a complex world of social interactions, household responsibilities, and time management.

Clear expectations from you make all the difference in their learning experience. If children fail to understand what you require, the confusion quickly leads to frustration or discouragement. The realm of writing is no exception.

You might not have an antique desk and blackboard or the perfect “teacher outfit” for the first day of school. But when it comes to teaching writing, I’m confident you’ll be the poised and prepared Writing Teacher of the Year if you avoid two common pitfalls!

Pitfall #1: Giving an “A” for Effort

In the writing department, this parent requires little of her kids. She may only ask for 15 minutes of freewriting each week or give a purposeless assignment here and there, yet she rewards any student who fulfills her arbitrary requirements. Liberally bestowing checkmarks, smiley faces, and passing grades, she lets her children’s grammar and spelling mistakes continue and multiply.

The problem with this mom is not her fun-loving or soft-hearted spirit, but her non-existent expectations. This haphazard teaching style not only creates a stumbling block for overwhelmed students, but it quenches their confidence as well.

Pitfall #2: Giving an “A” for Perfection

If you have a background in English, love creative writing, or consider yourself a grammar geek, you may have especially high standards for your children. This becomes a problem only when you don’t communicate these great expectations.

Guard against foisting vague standards of perfection on your kids (which sets them up for failure). Instead of burdening them with unclear ideals that can turn them off to writing, take the time to distill your expectations into well-defined, achievable goals.

The Write Solution

Giving clear expectations will help you raise better writers and reduce stress in the meantime. That’s why I’m such a fan of teaching writing skills the WriteShop way. Red-pencil corrections such as “too vague” become unnecessary when you make tasks concrete and give kids measurable targets beforehand:

  • Include emotion words to add a stronger voice.
  • Choose vivid, exciting words instead of dull, vague words.
  • Write one paragraph of five to seven sentences.

Now, instead of criticizing your children’s writing as “too vague” or “too short,” you can instruct, guide, and correct with confidence. As you and your children practice communicating specific ideas, requests, and concerns, the habit of sharing clear expectations might just overflow into the rest of your home life as well.

Interested in learning more about WriteShop curriculum choices? Read more and feel free to send us your comments and questions!

WriteShop Primary (grades K-3)

WriteShop Junior (grades 3-5)

WriteShop I and II (junior high/high school)

Daniella Dautrich is a WriteShop alumna and a graduate of Hillsdale College. She and her husband fill their home with books on writing, literature, and computer science. Daniella blogs at www.waterlilywriter.com.

Photo: Steven S., courtesy of Creative Commons.

Noun and pronoun variation

pronoun variation, avoid repetiion

Many writers, young and old, often allow their style to suffer from the pitfalls of overly repeated words. That’s one reason  WriteShop I teaches students to avoid unnecessary repetition. Today, let’s talk about ways to make sure proper names don’t become dreaded repeated words in stories and essays.

Using the same pronouns over and over again, such as he, she, he, she, can be just as boring as repeating a proper name. One of my favorite examples of an overused pronoun is found in Kate Douglas Wiggin’s Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (1903). Young Rebecca attempts to add “a refined and elegant touch” to her essay on “Solitude,” and the result is this entertaining writing mishap:

It would be false to say that one could ever be alone when one has one’s lovely thoughts to comfort one. One sits by one’s self, it is true, but one thinks; one opens one’s favorite book and reads one’s favorite story; one speaks to one’s aunt or one’s brother, fondles one’s cat, or looks at one’s photograph album. There is one’s work also: what a joy it is to one, if one happens to like work….

You can help your children avoid this kind of redundancy. Teach them these three strategies for writing with proper names, and watch boring reports become compelling narratives!

Noun and Pronoun Variation

Imagine you are writing a paragraph about your dad for Father’s Day. You wouldn’t want to start the first three sentences with “My dad,” and refer to him in last three sentences as “he.” Use pronouns with intention, and be mindful of noun and pronoun variation. Try using “Dad” in the first sentence, “my father” in the second sentence, “he” in the third sentence, and so on.

Remember: if you need to use a name multiple times, mix it up with pronouns so your readers never even notice when repeated words are there.

Proper Name Variations

If you are writing a paragraph about President Lincoln, try using different variations of his name.

  • President Abraham Lincoln is appropriate for the introduction and conclusion.
  • His title alone (the President) will fit well in a sentence about his political duties.
  • You might use his first and last name only (Abraham Lincoln) in a sentence about his personal life or religious convictions.
  • When other options are exhausted, his last name alone (Lincoln) can be used effectively to break up sentences with longer versions of his name.

Again, bear in mind that using a person’s name in every single sentence is also a form of repetition, so you would want to include the pronoun he several times as well.

The Sky’s the Limit with Descriptive Names

What if you are writing an essay about your siblings? Suppose that one paragraph describes your little sister Katie. Instead of just repeating “Katie,” “my sister,” and “she,” think of other ways to describe this special person in your life.

  • Is she the kind of girl who never sits still? Use a nickname like “our busy monkey” in a sentence about her personality.
  • Does she love clothes? Call her “our fashion queen” in a sentence about her appearance.
  • Is she the person who brightens your life? Try a term of endearment like “my little sunshine” or “Daddy’s princess” instead of a simple pronoun.

Repeated words are for lazy writing. When it comes time to write about other people, don’t use proper names over and over again! Try different versions of a person’s name, include noun and pronoun variation, and be creative with descriptive names and terms of endearment. I guarantee your writing will become more engaging and enjoyable.

Daniella Dautrich is a WriteShop alumna and a graduate of Hillsdale College. She and her husband fill their home with books on writing, literature, and computer science. Daniella blogs at www.waterlilywriter.wordpress.com.

Photo: DVIDSHUB, courtesy of Creative Commons.

Helping your child write thank you notes

interesting thank-you notes, writing center, avoiding procrastination

THE PARTY is over. Balloons have popped, streamers are down, and birthday presents spill out of gift bags across the floor. Do you and your child find yourselves dreading what comes next? Perhaps you whisper the words and cringe: thank-you notes.

Why Does It Matter?

Writing sincere, thoughtful thank-you notes is a valuable habit. As any college graduate or young bride knows, this skill is still highly relevant in our electronic age. My mother, my grandmother, and even my first employer taught me that nothing replaces the personal touch of a hand-written note. Remind your children that just as they enjoy receiving mail, their friends and family do, too! Oh, and don’t forget that April is National Card and Letter Writing Month. That should be enough of a reason right there.

When to Send Thank-you Notes

It’s tempting to forget about mailing notes when time and energy are limited. I can’t claim a perfect track record, but I’ve loosely adopted this rule of thumb:

  • If the gift-giving is mutual (a friend and I exchange presents at a Christmas party), thank-you notes are optional.
  • If the gift giving is one-sided (a relative sends me a check for graduation), thank-you notes are mandatory. Gifts for elementary children are usually one-sided, so your kids should probably be writing a lot of notes.

Avoid the Procrastination Bug

Most kids would rather do almost anything than write their thank-you notes. There are ways parents can avoid turning these little notes into power struggles. Try these tips, and the grandparents and great aunts will happily receive their notes in the mail long before next Christmas.

Set Up a Writing Center

Nothing beats distraction and procrastination like a well-stocked writing center. You can transform any corner of your house into a writing center with a few simple steps:

  • Make sure the area is well-lit.
  • Arrange the seating and writing surface in a comfortable way that encourages good posture.
  • Keep thank-you note supplies in easy reach (colorful stationery, pencils, stamps, address book, etc.) Let your child know that everything is ready to go.

Make It a Family Activity

Write thank-you notes alongside your children. Youngsters want to be part of mom and dad’s activities, and they will remember what you do long after they forget what you say. If a friend sends you a surprise package, or your neighbors bring a meal when you’re sick, sit down next to you children and write a thank-you note.

Decide on Standards Ahead of Time

Decide ahead of time if you’re going to correct grammar and spelling. Inventive spelling is cute when a child is six, but you may not be ready for every relative in town to critique your 10-year-old daughter’s writing skills.

Just remember that writing two drafts of the same note by hand can be overwhelming for a young child. If your son is not a strong speller, perhaps you can let him dictate the rough draft. Then, allow him to rewrite it in his own handwriting.

Tips for Writing Interesting Notes

When it comes to creating a personal touch, our words are just as important as careful handwriting and a first-class stamp. Teach your children simple ways to make thank-you notes fun to write and entertaining to read.

  • Include interesting verbs to tell how I used the gift or how I plan to use it.
  • Include a surprising fact about the gift, such as I’ve always wanted a butterfly net, because I want to be an entomologist when I grow up.
  • Include a personal reflection about the gift-giver, such as You always choose the perfect gifts for me, and I really appreciate your thoughtfulness.

What tips would you like to share about writing thank-you notes? What ideas have worked for your family?

Daniella Dautrich is a WriteShop alumna and a graduate of Hillsdale College. She and her husband fill their home with books on writing, literature, and computer science. Daniella blogs at www.waterlilywriter.wordpress.com.

Photo: Kate Hiscock courtesy of Creative Commons.

The magic of 3

Learning specialist Kendra Wagner joins us today as a guest blogger.

“The Magic of 3

Ask teachers what is meant by this phrase and they will likely answer: “The 3 body paragraphs of a 5-paragraph essay.”

Applications

I tell my students that the 5-part essay is designed to frame your thinking and make you a smarter person! It is a model of speaking or writing that is common across the professions of law, public speaking, journalism, and storytelling.

I make the analogy to football practice, with a warm-up, 3 main drills, and a cool-down. I also explain how, in the courtroom, TV and movie lawyers use 3 arguments with a short intro and their concluding statements. This wakes the kids up.

Ah, the power of what happens on a screen.

Exceptions

Notice I didn’t call it the “Rule of 3”  because there are many strategies to becoming a skilled writer, and many “right” ways to write.

Some kids find freedom in this, but others find it restricting: Why can’t writing be more like math? One correct answer. One correct way of constructing a sentence.

When these students beg to write only two body paragraphs, or a hefty four, I’ll let them if they make a good case for why a book character makes only two turning-point decisions in their novel, or for why the science museum might only have two interesting exhibits.

While the “Magic of 3” makes a great template to hang a child’s hat on, it should not be too rigidly enforced. Though a powerful paper can consist of two body paragraphs with compelling reasons or examples, these usually work best after establishing a comfort zone with the “Magic of 3.”

More Applications of the Magic of 3

The “Magic of 3” doesn’t stop with main points and paragraphs; it also applies to sentence building and word choice. I think you’ll find the following tips helpful as you guide your budding writers.

3 Topic Sentences

Here’s a good guideline: require students to come up with 3 options for a topic sentence (or thesis statement), and then choose one for their story or essay. This encourages prevention of topic sentence phobia, and reinforces the idea that there is no single right way to write.

3 Powerhouse Verbs and Adjectives

During the revising process, when students’ writing seems flat (or “wimpy,” as some of my middle schoolers call it), it is likely missing some powerhouse verbs and interesting adjectives.

Offer this guideline for powerhouse verbs: For every 3 long sentences, there should be at least 3 strong emotion or action verbs somewhere within those 3 sentences. (For 4th grade and above, a long sentence = 10-25 words.)

There should also be 3 adjectives, which can be as simple as color or number words.

These verbs and adjectives can be distributed in any way across the 3 sentences. Not every sentence needs one.

First try: We went to the water park. I liked the Geronimo slide best, but my brother was scared. It was hot and we all had fun and then went home.

Revision: We played all day at the water park and slid down ten slides. My favorite was a fast one called Geronimo, and it was the scariest, so my brother hung onto me as we skidded down. We beat the heat by staying in the water all day.

Verbs: played, slid, hung, skidded, beat, staying
Adjectives: ten, favorite, fast, scariest

3 Conjunctions

When kids are stuck at short, simple sentences, suggest using one of the 3 most common conjunctionsand, but, so—in the middle of the sentence, with a full sentence on either side of the conjunction. This is known as a compound sentence.

First try: I really like soccer. I get to do a lot of skill practice. It is all year round.
Revision: Soccer is a way to improve a lot of different skills, and you can practice and play year-round.

First try: There are many ways to use time wisely doing homework.
Revision: Homework is important, but students need to find ways to use their time wisely to get the most out of it.

3 Sentence Builders

When students need to improve word retrieval, sentence development, and ease with writing in a show, don’t tell style, provide the following drill practice. Have them create single, unrelated sentences using at least of the “5 Ws and How” in each sentence. For example:

After the long meeting, Lucy raced home in a flash to feed her dog, who was waiting on the porch.

  • when
  • who
  • how
  • why
  • where

Thanks to Kendra Wagner for guest blogging today! A learning specialist in Seattle, Kendra teaches children reading, writing, and thinking skills. Her specialty in ADD and dyslexia grew out of her work in schools as a reading specialist and consultant. She has a particular interest in written expression and helping unearth children’s voice. Visit Kendra’s websiteblog, and Facebook page.

Photos: lollyknit and rodimuspower, courtesy of Creative Commons.

 

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